1868 Flying Foam Massacre

Picture courtesy of Julie Dowling

17th Feb 2018 marks the 150th anniversary of the Flying Foam Massacre that occurred in 1868. However, this day was only the start of the massacre, which continued for some months and occurred not just in the Flying Foam Passage area but was a systematic punitive expedition designed to decimate the Yaburara people who owned and occupied Murujuga country, now known as the Burrup Peninsula. It is estimated that about 150 men, women and children were killed between February and May, 1868, with the punitive party “committing the most cowardly and diabolical acts on women and children”. This genocidal act had a devastating impact on the Yaburara community that continues to be felt with deep pain today.

But where are the news programs announcing this anniversary? Where is the media attention? Did anyone at all commemorate this tragedy? Why is there still such a deafening silence about the history of genocide in Australia?

There will be a commemorative event on the Burrup Peninsula on Sunday April 15th at 10am. More information can be found on Facebook event page Annual Flying Foam Massacre Event


Natives at Yeeda not in need of Govt relief

State Records Archive
Consignment: 255
Item: 1900/0006
Title: Yeeda Station – natives not in need of Govt relief

Keywords: Yeeda Station, Wallal Station, Arthur Clifton, rations

To Officer in Charge, Police Dept, Derby
The Manager of the Yeeda Station informs me that he has been feeding 10 or 12 decrepit old natives for some years past and asks whether he can get any compensation for doing so in future.
The opinion expressed in Parliament is that employers of natives should in all charity support the natives who have worked for them or their immediate relatives when they come destitute and past work and if I am to comply with requests like these from all the stations in each district, the vote allowed me will be expended before half the year is over. I should be much obliged if you would from time to time collect information for me from your officers instructing them to enquire into the condition of the natives at each station they may visit and whether the destitute ones have been former labourers thereon. This would assist me very much in deciding how much relief I can fairly allot. Please reply as soon as possible.
Henry Prinsep

Mr Prinsep,
For your information as game of all description is very plentiful on the Fitzroy, I think it would be an unwise precedent to give relief to any of the natives.
I also think that the stations who have had natives in their employ from their childhood should be made to provide for them in their old age.
M H Brophy
Sub Inspt Police

To Corpl Buckland
Please report for the information of Mr Prinsep if you are aware of any old or decrepit natives at the Yeeda Station who require relief.
M H Brophy
Sub Inspt Police

To Sub Inspr Brophy
For the information of Mr Prinsep I have to report that I do not know of any old or decrepit natives at the Yeeda Station. The Yeeda is a cattle station and they do not employ a great many natives, most of those employed are young boys without women.
About two years ago, the Yeeda employed a large number of natives as they had both sheep and cattle, but they have shifted all their sheep to Myroodah about 70 miles further up the Fitzroy and most of the natives are there. There are thousands of kangaroos and plenty of fish within 2 or 3 miles of the Yeeda, so I do not think that any natives who may be at the Yeeda should require any relief.
A M Buckland

See report from P C Buckland and remarks thereon by Inspr Brophy
Acknowledge and say I’m glad to hear that the aborigines there can get plenty of game and do not need government relief.

To Secretary, Aborigines Protection Board, Perth
I beg to remind you it is now three months since you promised to communicate further, with regard to decrepit natives I reported requiring assistance.
I must remind you, I have had no further reply. And would like to know why! At present there is an old native and his woman on the homestead I have been keeping in food and medicine for some weeks passed as the man cannot hunt for himself and it doesn’t seem fair that stations should be called on to provide for its aged natives when something like £10,000 a year is spent in providing for them in other places of the colony.
I believe the system has been abused in places and I think it likely to continue unless there is more strict supervision. It is not my intention to dictate to the Board what is right and what is wrong. But if one can believe all one hears that goes on at some of the distributing centres. There is room for improvement in places. I think perhaps a close inspection of matters at Wallal Statoin (below La Grange Bay) would reveal a state of things far from satisfactory. I would like it to be distinctly understood my opinions are entirely based upon hearsay from travellers. But as I am stationed on the Broome-[illegible] road junction, I see nearly all travellers and consequently have the statements of many on the matter. And if half of them are true things must be in a disgraceful state. I do not wish my name used as informant in this matter but felt it was my duty to repeat this.
Yours truly,
Arthur E Clifton
Yeeda Station

See letter from Mr A Clifton of Feb 19th 1900
Acknowledge and say that I am now in receipt of further information regarding the conditions of the natives on the Fitzroy River – their ability to get food which is abundant. In a country where there is as much game and as many able young men in the tribes to catch it and feed their old relatives, I do not think the time has arrived for the government to pamper them with too readily afforded relief, which in some other parts of the colony has been said to have pauperised them needlessly – I regret to have delayed so long in my further communication to him but other matters supervened and prevented the subject from coming up for which I must apologise – I take note of the reports which have come to him verbally from travellers and will keep an eye on the places mentioned – as to Wallal as strict measures as possible in such a distant spot are now being taken.

To Chief Protector Aborigines, Perth
Dear Sir,
I am in receipt of yours of 26th May and carefully note what you say re natives.
I extremely regret you find it unnecessary to grant relief to any of the Fitzroy natives.
It is neither my business nor intention to dictate to you what should be done.
Your source of information is if I mistake not, from one whose sympathies are not with the squatter and one who shares the opinion of a few others that the squatter should keep all the decrepit natives in the district, which is as unfair as I would be to expect a landlord to maintain all aged tenants on his holding.
There is a lot to be said on the matter which I do not care to enter into.
And I feel sure if you were to send a capable and impartial man through the district, you would gain much valuable information which you cannot get from either the Resident Magistrate or the Police for reason I will not explain.
I thoroughly agree with you that it does not do to afford relief too readily to the natives. It does an erroneous amount of harm. And I am afraid those who distribute rations at times abuse the privelege.
I can honestly assure you the cases I have brought under your notice are thoroughly deserving of relief. But I cannot in fairness to my employer continue rationing them.
Yours Faithfully,
Arthur E Clifton

Reply and say that if there are any really urgent cases of distress among the natives in the vicinity of Yeeda Station and on reference to the Govt Resident he approves of relief being given I will certainly confirm his approval and acknowledge the account for payment. These accounts should be sent in monthly on the form prescribed (3 copies enclosed) and duly certified by someone who knows of the service having been performed. A travelling inspector will before very long be visiting his district.

To Chief Protector Aborigines, Perth
Dear Sir,
Yours to hand re natives
As there appears to be an Inspector travelling though our district shortly I shall wait his arrival before doing anything concerning relief of natives. One of the old natives I spoke of requiring relief has since died.
Yours Truly,
Arthur E Clifton

Katitjin notes:

Clifton, Arthur Ernest (1873-1952)
The Clifton family were a prominent settler family in the Bunbury-Australind area. Their family homestead, Rosamel, in Australind, was a large dairy and sheep farm that remained in the family for subsequent generations. The Rosamel property was next door to Parkfield, the family farm of George Canler Rose, who, with other Rose family members, were also pastoralists in the Kimberleys. Furthermore, Arthur’s uncle was Archibald Gervase Clifton, who was the Resident Magistrate and Warden for the Kimberleys Goldfields District between 1892 and 1901, although his wife and four children remained living another family farm, Upton, which was adjacent to Rosamel. Arthur married in 1901 and returned to the family property in Australind.

Brophy, Michael (1858-1923)
Inspector Michael Brophy, born in New Zealand, started his police career in the Kimberley region as a trooper in 1891, before being promoted to Inspector at Kalgoorlie in 1902. He went on to Bunbury and then to Fremantle, before retiring in 1922. While in the Kimberley, Brophy led a punitive expedition which resulted in the shooting of 30 Aboriginal people. Brophy reports that, “‘In all my experience with natives I have never known them to make such plucky and determined fight as those blacks.”

Buckland, Arthur (1880-1942)
Arthur Buckland was a police officer in the Kimberley region for over twenty years. He married Amy Walker in Derby in 1905. He was officer in charge of the Wyndham Police Station during the Forrest River Massacre incident and his evidence as a witness was used in the subsequent Royal Commission.

Prinsep, Henry Charles (1844-1922)

Accidental shooting of Annie by Mingo

State Records Archive
Consignment: 430
Item: 1889/1745
Report re accidental shooting of Aboriginal Native woman Annie, by her man Mingo, whilst kangaroo hunting.



Southern District Vasse

Sub-district Hamelin Station

Corpl Hogan

I have to report for the information of Sub Inspr Back that in accordance with instructions from you to accompany P C Sutton to make enquiries as to the shooting of Aboriginal native woman Annie by her man Aboriginal native Mingo about 4 weeks ago near the mouth of the Warren River.

Myself and P C Sutton left the Hameling Station at 9.30am on the 8th Dec 1889 and arrived at Mr Scott’s on the 10th. The native woman Coriann who made the report was not at Scotts. On the morning of the 11th we left for the Donnelly River accompanied by Mr William Scott to try and find Coriann. We found her about 2 miles the other side of Fly Brook in company of her daughter Clara and Comical and two Aboriginal females. I got the following statement from Coriann, who is an intelligent Aboriginal native woman and can speak good English.

I am Comical’s sister and the deceased woman Annie was our aunt. About four weeks ago on a Saturday myself, my daughter Clara, Mingo, Annie, Noble and an old deaf native named Coryann were kangarooing. The latter two split out from us and was a long way off. Mingo kept shouting for Noble to come on Annie told him not to shout so or he would drop dead as the day was so hot. She said he ought to shoot a kangaroo. A short time after this we saw a kangaroo. I sent the dogs after it – they rounded it up in the direction of us. We were standing as follows Mingo about 30 yards from Annie and myself and Clara about 50 yds from Mingo. The kangaroo ran between Mingo and Annie and as it came nearly opposite to Annie Mingo fired. He should have waited until the kangaroo passed Annie and then fired. I heard the report of the gun and heard Annie scream and saw her fall. She was shot under the left breast and the blood was coming out of her mouth. Mingo threw down his gun and ran to her crying. I ran to her also but Mingo was there before me. He said he was sorry and did not mean to shoot Annie. Some time after Annie was shot Noble and the old deaf man came up. Noble said he thought one of his dogs was shot as he heard the report of the gun and heard them crying. I did not see Mingo raise his gun to fire but I saw him in this position (Here Coriann took Mr William Scott’s gun and held it in what is called the caping position; ie. against the right hip). The reason I could not see him fire was because my attention was engaged on the dogs and kangaroo. I am certain no other natives were about at the time of the occurence except Noble and the old native Coryan and they were about half a mile off. The shots were swan drops made in a mould of Mr Brockman’s. I cannot say why Mingo shot Annie but I think he must have aimed at the kangaroo and shot Annie instead. I do not think he meant to shoot her. Myself and my daughter, Noble, Polly, and Mingo buried Annie near the mouth of the Warren River on the same evening. We told my brother Comical that his aunt was bitten by a snake as we were afraid he would shoot or spear Mingo. Annie and Mingo are very old people (about 60 years old) and lived together many years. They have often quarrelled the same as the natives.

From inquiries made by P C Carroll from settlers and natives Mingo had took to using a gun only about six or seven months and was not a very good shot. The following is a sketch of the position of the natives at the time of the occurrence as described to me and roughly pencilled by the female Corian.



Forwarded to Sub Inspr Back

I have reported this to the Resident Magistrate who will authorise no action to be taken until he receives a reply from the Aborigines Protector Board to which he is making a full report of the matter.

Corpl John Hogan

J. Isdell, Nullagine. Native question general in district

State Records Archive
Consignment: 255
Item: 1900/0363
Title: J. Isdell, Nullagine. Native question general in district

Keywords: Coorabung (Charley), James Isdell, George Olivey, Axel Ostlund, Marble Bar, Nullagine, Mosquito Creek, Clemenen, Walker, Wordley

14th Apr 1900
To H C Prinsep Esq
Dear Sir,
I would like to again draw your attention to native affairs in this district. If the Government really do intend to watch over and guard the natives against their rapid deterioration and extinction, steps should be taken to do so, the allowing of bush natives to settle down in the close proximity to bush settlements simply means their learning all the white man’s vices and be inoculated with various loathsome diseases. The whole enactments regarding natives wants revising and several new provisions made for their benefit. The allowing of natives to assemble and settle permanently close to these mission centres is not only injurious to the natives themselves but also causes many natives who have kind masters, well cared for and clothed to run away and join the idle natives camped near settlements. It also causes many natives who are well cared for and employed on stations in the neighbourhood to run away and also join these idle vagabonds, these idle natives will not work for anyone – they live on the illicit trade of their women, they are also acquiring a liking for spirits, as in [illeg.] of their camping so close to settlements it is almost impossible to prevent – gins being smuggled into their camps at night time. I was in Marble Bar a few weeks ago, and saw many natives men and women camped you may say in the streets. For the benefit of the natives such a thing should not be allowed.
It makes it a very difficult matter for the police to arrest any natives in these camps, as their movements are so closely watched, that timely warning is always giving of their approach. most the natives camped on the Nullagine townsite do not belong to this district or river, they are mostly from the Oakover and from a distance of over 100 miles eastward. They are simply attracted here by the prospect of being able to trade their women and to live an idle lazy life so a course should not be encouraged by the Government. The want of food does not bring them in, as the country to which they mostly belong is teeming with game and vegetables owing to the last four years good seasons and scarcity of blacks. I would suggest until the government has had time to collect information on which to base a new aboriginal act, that the police should receive strict orders that all unemployed natives should be compelled to camp at least 3 miles outside the limit of any townsite, ending no consideration whatever allow any native women inside the limit, by this means many present idle natives would be compelled to take to their natural way of living and hunting in the bush. Any native men or boys who are employed to be allowed within the limit. And to be also allowed to camp not nearer than a mile from the settlement. The police at present are powerless under present circumstances to abate the nuisance, there is no law in place to cope with it, to arrest and sentence natives under the Vagrant Act would simply entail upon the government is very heavy expense as from Mt Mulligan alone I could send 100 natives in one batch. I am sure that if the matter was talked over with Sir John Forrest, he would plainly see the great injury that is being done to the northern natives through lax regulations and I am sure he would sanction such orders that whilst benefiting all the natives would in no way interfere between masters and servant. I am hoping the government will adapt my previous suggestion as to gathering information from all portions of the colony before pursuing any fresh regulations or new enactments. Mr [Francis Edward] Walsh, the magistrate at Marble Bar, informs me I can [get] a sufficient supply of blankets from him for the few decrepit natives that require them when the cold weather sets in.
I remain yours faithfully,
James Isdell

Chief Protector
See letter from Mr J Isdell of April 14th ’00
Acknowledge and thank him – add that during the last year I have been earnestly considering the best means of checking the intercourse, especially the mining centres between the white and black race – and intend to recommend certain enactments to that end – He will be glad to hear that a very suitable man has been appointed as travelling inspector and is now making his way toward the Pilbarra field via the Ashburton and Fortesque – [illeg.] started last August – the area is a large one certainly but I hope the activity of this officer will enable him to reach the Pilbara District in a reasonable time. Meanwhile I have ‘your’ letter of last Dec still before me and will use the information therein in my arguments towards reform. I regret much that my representations in this direction during the last session, owing to the heavy duties of the Parliament then were unavoidably left standing over.

From Clerk of Petty Sessions
To The Chief Protector of Aborigines, Perth
Place: Nullagine, N.W.
Date: 28th April 1900
Re. Coorabung Charley Ab. N.W.A
I have the honour to forward your report on conviction of this Ab Native, together with the remarks thereon by J Isdell Esq J. P.
Clerk of Petty Sessions, Nullagine
Acknowledge – say I have read Mr Isdell’s remarks on this case and shall use them when representing necessity for fresh cases re aborigines

See letter from J Isdell of 12.6.00
Acknowledge – say that the Inspector (W Geo Olivey) may be travelling incognito for what I know, but I fear not always – However, he is a very shrewd and impartial observer – I will make the suggestion to him when I next write – I am glad to say I have received visits from one or two residents of the Pilbarra field whose statements quite corroborate Mr Isdell’s.

See letter from Mr J Isdell dated Nullagine dated July 6th 1900, re condition of natives at Nullagine.
Please reply by wire to Isdell Nullagine – 80 blankets were sent to R M Marble Bar on 23rd April for distribution – am wiring to him re your letter 6th July
Wire to R M Marble Bar – 80 blankets for natives sent you 23 April. Trust you distributed a good number at Nullagine where I hear a number of old and decrepit natives require them. Please see that the instructions in my coming letter of advice are carried out and report if more rations are required there.
Mr P
If more are reported as required please order them – also blankets.

11th Aug 1900
To H C Prinsep
Dear Sir,
Yours of 20th July and Mr Olivey just to hand. Also your telegram re native blankets. I sincerely hope that Mr Olivey in his capacity as Travelling Inspector is all you anticipate.
Re native blankets: I have had some correspondence with the Resident Magistrate at Marble Bar on the subject and sent him in the names of about 35 old decrepit natives who are living on the charity of the white residents – and who should be supplied with blankets, clothing and rations by the Government. So far I have not received any blankets for this district. As the Nullagine is a separately proclaimed district from Marble Bar, will you in future arrange that all blankets, clothing etc for natives here be addressed to the district, to avoid delay and correspondence with Marble Bar. I cannot possibly see why many squatting stations and police stations should received the amount of supplies they do, and this district be denied any. Hoping all this will be rectified on the receipt of Mr Olivey’s reports.
I remain, Yours Truly,
James Isdell

Beg to acknowledge receipt of your letter 11th August and to inform you that next season I will send you a bale of blankets, separate from those of Marble Bar – I will write to you further on receipt of Mr Olivey’s report, when no doubt Mr Prinsep will have returned from the Eastern Colonies where he has been on a visit.

27 Sept 1900
From the Resident Magistrate Marble Bar
To The Chief Protector of Aborigines, Perth
I beg to acknowledge receipt of your letter No 4/144 of 21st July last.
When in Nullagine on my last visit I made inquiries and find that there are practically no indigent natives in the district. There were a few old natives who should have had blankets for the cold weather, but the supply arrived too late.
In reference to the rumoured immorality of the natives, I have collected a good deal of information but I notice in the Roebourne newspaper that Mr Olivey, your Inspector, is likely to visit the district. I think perhaps it will be better for me to see him and he can then judge for himself and supply a report on this branch of the native question.
I have, etc,
A Ostlund
Resident Magistrate

Acknowledged with thanks – It will be better, as you suggest, to wait ill Mr Olivey our Travelling Inspector visits Nullagine, when he can confer with you on the native question in the Nullagine district and report to this office.
I will see that the blankets reach you in good time, next season.

To: The Chief Protector of Aborigines, Perth
At this Township I saw twenty natives altogether, but only a few of them were employed and those mostly women. The two hotel keepers, Messrs Clemenen and Walker, employed two or three men each, three women are employed at the hop-beer shop and the butcher has one man and two or three women working for him. At a garden a mile or so up the river a white man named Wordley keeps a woman, there being several natives loafing about there at times. At this garden I saw and treated a very bad case of syphilis and have left medicine with Wordley to contine the treatment. I visited two or three other camps, in company with Constable Brown and found two men about 55, both pretty strong and hearty and three old women two of them nearly blind. These later I should have put on relief but until the loafers are cleared out the township I consider it is useless to feed these old people, as those able to work would probably get the benefit of the rations supplied.
I also saw two half caste children – one a boy about eight or nine at Wordley’s garden and the other, a child only a few weeks old, at Butcher’s camp.
I was informed there were a great many natives about the township just before my arrival, but they had gone into the bush towards Roy Hill farther back for a big Corroboree. The natives for the most part absolutely refuse to work and live on the prostitution of the women. I believe several white men keep women in and around the township and outlying camps, but it is a difficult matter to obtain any definite information, the police constable being quite a new hand and knowing nothing at all about natives.
James Isdell of Mosquito Creek told me he has applied for blankets for the old natives last winter, but none were obtainable. I have since ascertained that there is now a good supply at Marble Bar and will make arrangements for a bale to be sent to Nullagine before the next winter. The police station is very primitive, being a small bough shed, with a big log to chain prisoners onto. The prisoners (native) brought in from Hornjan’s Horryan’s Horrigan’s Station and convicted of cattle killing were kept in the police camp for two or three days.
G. S. Olivey
Travelling Inspector
Corunna Downs

To Chief Protector of Aborigines
Hold business license in connection my business at Nullagine – have been accustomed employ two old native women about three hours daily – daily officer in charge police refuses allow native women in township – is he justified – these women receive from me daily rations and clothes sufficient for themselves and family
D H Bradshaw

Chief Protector
See report from Mr Isdell dated 14.11.00, also letter from Mr Olivey reporting on Nullagine dated Corunna Downs 18.11.00
See if we have any reports at all from Mr Ostlund – if not, why not, to get one at once and see if it agrees with private reports of Olivey’s.

Chief Protector
See wire from Mr Bradshaw date 7 Dec 1900 re police refusal to allow two natives in township of Nullagine although in employment
Not knowing circumstances decline to interfere with police who act under orders of Resident Magistrate – but consider that generally native women should be kept out of township

Katitjin Notes:

James Isdell
James Isdell was a pastoralist, parliamentarian, and traveling protector of Aborigines. Although he expresses compassion in his communications in some records, such as his regard for protecting the assets of Turkey in Item 1910/0318, he was more notoriously known for being the instigator of the Canning Stock Route and an “enthusiastic child removalist.” The following quote is from a chapter by Robert Manne, in the book Genocide and settler society: frontier violence and stolen indigenous children in Australian history (2004), edited by A. Dirk Moses:

The most enthusiastic West Australian child removalist in these early days was James Isdell, the former pastoralist and parliamentarian, who was appointed traveling protector for the north in 1907. On 13 Nov 1908, Isdell wrote from the Fitzroy River district to the Chief Inspector, Charles Gale. “I consider it a great scandal to allow any of these half-caste girls to remain with the natives.” On 15 Jan 1909, Gale issued Isdell with the authority to “collect all half-caste boys and girls” and to transport them to Beagle Bay. Isdell expressed his gratitude: “It should have been done years ago.” By May 1909, he was able to report from Wyndham that the entire East Kimberley region had been “cleaned up.”
Isdell was aware that sentimentalists from the south sometimes wrote letters to newspapers “detailing the cruelty and harrowing grief of the mothers.” He regarded such complaints as nonsensical. “Let them visit and reside for a while” in one of the native camps and see for themselves “the open indecency and immorality and hear the vile conversations ordinarily carried on which these young children see, listen to, and repeat.” Isdell did not believe that the Aboriginal mother felt the forcible removal of her child more deeply than did a bitch the loss of a pup. “I would not hesitate,” he wrote, “to separate any half-caste from its Aboriginal mother, no matter how frantic momentary grief might be at the time. They soon forget their offspring.” “All Aboriginal women,” he explained in letters to Gale “are prostitutes at heart” and all Aborigines are “dirty, filthy, immoral.” (Moses 2004, 222-223)

Olivey, George Sydney (1863-1937)
George Olivey was the first Travelling Inspector for Aborigines, appointed in 1899 to make a grand tour of the state with the aim of ensuring that the policies of the Department for Aborigines, under Chief Protector Henry Prinsep, were being complied with. He continued in this role until 1902. Born in Sydney to a British military family (his father was Lieut-Col Sir Walter Rice Olivey), he came to Western Australia in about 1887 and was part owner of Annean Station, near Nannine until 1909. He then farmed at Clonbinane, near Busselton until 1911, after which he became the Rabbit Inspector at Northam for the Dept of Agriculture.

Rations to indigent natives Lower Murchison. Proposed reduction in rates at Cue, Nannine, Mt magnet, Peak Hill.

State Records Archive
Consignment: 255
Item: 1908/0966

Title: Rations to indigent natives Lower Murchison. Proposed reduction in rates at Cue, Nannine, Mt Magnet, Peak Hill.

Keywords: rations, Cue, Nannine, Mt Magnet, Peak Hill, police, Aboriginal protectors

18th Sep 1908
To: Inspector of Police, Cue
From: The Chief Protector of Aborigines
I am directed to write to you regarding accounts for rationing Aboriginal natives by Police Constables J McDonald, Nannine, McLernon, Mt Magnet, Jas O’Connor, Peak Hill and A Brodie, Cue. J McDonald, McLernon and A Brodie how charging 9d per day for each native. 14 lbs of flour given at Mt Magnet and Cue it’s too much. Natives here frequently state they cannot get through 10 lbs in the week. The Chief Protector is of the opinion that the natives at Nannine, Mt Magnet and Cue should be rationed at 6d per day each. With reference to Peak Hill there are on the list three half-caste girls who should if possible be sent to Perth and from there forwarded to some mission. Please let me know if this can be done also report fully regarding rations at stations I have mentioned.
E. W. Pechell

[Accounts Memo]
Police Dept, Murchison District, Cue
3rd Oct 1908
Memo of accounts for Rations to Indigent Aborigines, Sept quarter 1908
A Brodie, Const, Cue
2 @ 30 days @ 9d and 4 @ 20 days @ 9d = £5/5/-
J McLernon, Const, Mt Magnet
5 @ 30 days @ 9d = £5/12/6
J O’Connor, Const, Peak Hill
19 @ 30 days @ 9d = £21/7/6
Wm Walker, Const, Wiluna
9 @ 30 days @ 9d plus half-caste child 30 days @ 6d = £14/5/-

9th October 1908
From: F. G. Mitchell, Police Department, Sub-Inspector’s Office, Cue
Sergt Simpson,
The Chief Protector of Aborigines considers 10 lbs flour per week sufficient for each native on ration list and that the charge should be reduced to 6d per diem. Is Const Brodie agreeable to ration natives on this scale and at price?

[Added to letter]
Constable Brodie,
Are you agreeable to ration indigent natives at the scale and price and given herein?
Louis W Simpson
Sergt 51

[Added to letter]
Sergt Simpson
I am not agreeable to ration natives on the scale and price herein mentioned, but would be agreeable to do it at 7d per day. If the flour was reduced to 8 lbs per week, I would be willing to do it at 6d.
I may mention that the rations supplied by me to the natives is of the best quality available in Cue.
A Brodie
Const 498

9th October 1908
From: F. G. Mitchell, Police Department, Sub-Inspector’s Office, Cue
Const McDonald, Nannine
The Chief Protector of Aborigines considers the rations to indigent natives and cost should be reduced. He suggests 6d per diem would be sufficient and the scale 10 lbs flour weekly and I presume some tea and sugar. Meat and tobacco, no doubt he considers unnecessary. Please reply at once if you will ration at above price and state the scale you will provide.
F. G. Mitchell

[Added to letter]
Sub Inspt Mitchell
The ration of 10 lbs of flour, 1 1/2 lbs of sugar and 3 ozs of tea per week without meat and tobacco would not I think be enough rations for these natives. At the present time the natives get their rations every day for if given at once they gorge themselves for a couple of days and do the best they can for the remainder of the week, besides the regular supply every day, one or two natives always turn up for their breakfast, so that they really get more than is charged for and frequently get two cakes of tobacco instead of one per week.
Frequently clothing is given them or else they would next to naked. If the Chief Protector will forward three pairs of trousers, four shirts, and three dresses for the use of the natives. I will have them delivered as I think necessary and will supply 10 lbs of flour, 1/2 lb of sugar and 3 ozs of tea per week to deserving natives at 6d per day, but if I find I cannot do it except at a loss I will forward a further report about the matter
J McDonald
Cons 266

9th October 1908
From: F. G. Mitchell, Police Department, Sub-Inspector’s Office, Cue
Const McLernon, Mt Magnet
The Chief Protector of Aborigines complains at the quantity of flour indigent natives receive weekly. He suggests 10 lbs per week is quite sufficient and a reduction in charge accordingly to 6d per diem. Will you do it at the above price and state the scale on which you will provide. This does not mean reduction of tea and sugar.
F. G. Mitchell
Sub Inspr

[Added to letter]
Sub Inspt Mitchell, Cue
I have to report for your information regarding indigent natives that as flour is 2 1/2 per lb here, a person could scarcely do this for 6d per diem for 10 lbs per week. I am aware that the 14 lbs was too much for one native per week and I would suggest that allowance of flour be reduced to 8 lbs the week each. This in addition to a bit of bush food they can gather would then be ample for them. I can give 8 lbs flour, 2 lbs sugar, and 1/4 lb tea each per week here at 6d per diem.
J McLernon
Const 346

9th October 1908
From: F. G. Mitchell, Police Department, Sub-Inspector’s Office, Cue
Const O’Connor, Peak Hill
The Chief Protector of Aborigines complains at the quantity of flour indigent natives receive weekly.He suggests 10 lbs per week is quite sufficient and a reduction in charge accordingly to 6d per diem. Will you do it at the above price and state the scale? Reply at once.
F. G. Mitchell
Sub Inspr

[Added to letter]
Sub Inspt Mitchell, Cue
I respectfully report for your information the scale of flour issued to the natives per day is 2 lbs each. I have no objection to reducing it down to 10 lbs per week but I cannot see my way clear to reduce it to 6d per diem.
Jas O’Connor
Const 787

To Inspector of Police, Cue
12th Oct 1908
In my memo of today concerning relief to natives in your district I forgot to mention that I have not yet received any reply to questions contained in my letter 13/220 re the three half-caste girls on the relief list at Peak Hill. Unless they are very strong reasons against it arrangements should be made to send them to Perth.
C. F. Gale
Chief Protector of Aborigines

To Sub-Inspector Mitchell
Re: Rationing indigent natives proposed reduction from 9d to 6d per diem
Const Brodie’s minute forwarded for your information and that of the Chief Inspector of Aborigines.
Louis Simpson
Sergt 51

[Added to letter]
To: The Chief Protector of Aborigines, Perth
I cannot do better than by forwarding you the different constables reports in regard the subject matter. The constables are undertaking to do what it would be impossible to find a civilian to do; that is, supplying the natives with food with practically no remuneration for services rendered and the use of money outlayed.
I would have replied sooner but when your letter reached Cue I was away in district it was therefore laying in my office for about 14 days before it could receive any attention.
The Const at Peak Hill informs me he is unable to supply at present for information in regard to the two half caste children being sent to Perth. He however tells me it is impossible to get anyone to bring them as far as the train.
Please note two lbs bread is 5d in Cue, 7d Nannine, 10d Peak Hill. You can form an opinion as to how much is left when rations supplied are paid for.
F. G. Mitchell

Peak Hill
16th Nov 1908
To: The Chief Protector of Aborigines
Dear Sir,
I have the honour to address this letter of protest to you. The native people at this district are persecuted by many both by word and deed, and I wish to call to your notice the most recent, the publication by the Murcheson Times (Cue) of a malicious report that – “tribes of natives are hanging around and menacing the police station where for half castes are awaiting transport to the coast etc”
Now I as one who for over five years have closely studied the native people, and was in a humble measure active in obtaining the order to make provision for the protection of them. Three little girls (Teresa/Daisy 8 3/4 yrs – Maninda/Lizzie 5 3/4 years – Rosie 6 yrs) and living close to the police station, visiting the children and also explaining to their native friends and relations the good fortune the girls would meet, know that those statements are shamefully false and that’s some cowardly spirit supplies numerous scandal and lies to newspapers to the hurt of the poor people so maligned. Cannot some special measure be taken to end this? I hope to get an extended report at a future date.
Faithfully Yours,
John McNaughton JP MB FRCSE

Katitjin Notes:

Dr John McNaughton was appointed by the State Board of Health as the medical officer for Peak Hill in 1903. He was made a Justice of the Peace in Peak Hill in 1908. He was frequently in conflict with local settlers due to his vocal disapproval of the way Aboriginal people were treated and gave heavy penalties for crimes of violence against Aboriginal woman in the Peak Hill court.

Mrs Hester wishes to retain two half-caste girls

State Records Archive
Consignment: 255
Item: 1907/0188
Title: Reverend A Burton, Middle Swan. Mrs A Hester of Bullsbrook has 2 half-caste girls in her care – wishes to retain them

Keywords: Matilda Hester, Rev A Burton, Yintheebung (Minnie), Yandirrthyango (Lizzie)

[File cover]
Recd: A Burton, Middle Swan
Subject: Two h.c. children in charge of Mrs M A Hester, Bullsbrook – security required that she may retain these children
Letter to Revd A Burton – 10/523
Assent to Mrs Hester – 10/521

5th March 1907
From: A Burton, Swan Native and Half-Caste Mission, Middle Swan
To: The Chief Protector of Aborigines, Perth
Dear Sir,
Mrs Matilda Anne Hester, widow, of Bull’s Brook has in her care two half-caste children who were formally indentured to her on 30th April 1903 under the names of Yintheebung (alias Minnie) and Yandirrthyango (alias Lizzie). Previous to this date Mrs Hester says that she had the care of the children for at least 5 years, i.e. from the time that the elder one was about 6 and the younger one about 2 years old.
They have been taught the rudiments of reading, writing and arithmatic and attend the Govt School at Bullsbrook.
I desire to recommend that if possible some security be given to Mrs Hester to enable her to retain these children under her control as a danger lies ahead if other persons can entice them away with impunity. I am quite satisfied that they are in good hands.
Yours very truly,
A Burton

[File cover]
From: Mrs M A Hester, Bull’s Brook
Subject: Care of 2 h.c. girls who have been under indenture (Minnie & Lizzie)
Mr Peshell [secretary]
Please copy and hand to Mrs Logue (her sister) my reply to Mrs Hester
HCP [Henry Prinsep]
done 10/147

[Letter: there appears to have been a first page to this letter that is now missing]
…her at first, but she is quite strong now. She is very little use yet being too young to do anything. She is attending the State School. The elder girl was about six when I took her, she is now between 13 & 14 years, her mother gave her to me, she had a black father and when they left the station, to go on to the tin fields they left her with me. So I though it was my duty to bring her away as all young girls got the bad on the fields.
It would be very hard for me to part with them now as I have had them so long and I am very fond of the children and I have had a lot of expense with them.
They are both attending the State School and are getting on well.
I would like to adopt them so that I can look after them the same as my own children. If you would allow me to, my sister will be able to give you any thing you wish to know.
Yours Faithfully,
M. A. Hester

[Extract from Minnie’s school book]

Katitjin Notes:
Matilda Hester (1865-1956), nee Logue, was married to Frederick Henry Valentine Hester in 1895 and lived at Mallina Station until it was destroyed by cyclone in 1898, at which time it is likely that the couple moved to Abydos Station,  which was owned and managed by her brother Joseph Ephraim Hester, where she remained even after her husband’s death in 1901. It was during this time that Matilda took Lizzie and Millie into her care. In 1903, when Lizzie and Millie were formally indentured to her, she was living at Abydos Station. In 1906, Matilda moved to Bullsbrook and took the two girls with her; she then moved back to the Logue family home “The Camp” in Mornington Mills.

J Isdell, Broome. General report (as Travelling Protector) Part 1

State Records Archive
Consignment: 652
Item: 1908/0332

Title: J Isdell, Broome. General report (as Travelling Protector)

Keywords: James Isdell, Broome, Willy Creek, Barred Creek, John McCarthy, police

8 Feb ’08
To: Chief Protector, Perth
Two of my horses having gone astray I have been delayed but have just got them and leave on Monday 10th.
With reference to the murder of a black woman by her man and of which I wired now. I was acquainted with both and considered [illeg.] a dangerous character and I think there will be some difficulty in capturing him. My complaint in the matter shared with most of Broome residents is the totally inadequate police protection for such a town as Broome with its population of over 1000 Asiatic and 200 Aborigines. I do not know of any northern coastal town that has greater claims for mounted police than Broome. This large number of aborigines within a hundred miles radius alone entitles the place to one. The foul murder of a black woman within a mile of the town, shows the necessity of it. It was not a tribal murder, but I think that drink and coloured men had something to do with it, at any rate owing to there being [illeg.] mounted police our outfit for such, no steps were taken to follow up the murderer. I can safely say that if it had been a white man or woman that was so fatally murdered both horses and police would have been quickly formed. At present there are only two foot police in Broome. One of those is a water policeman having charge of the jetty. The other one is a new arrival straight off the streets of Perth, totally ignorant of aborigines and asiatics, who is although willing enough, totally unacquainted with natives and their ways and equally so with the horde of aliens. The corporal in charge cannot do outside duty, as his whole time is taken up in the office, writing red tape reports, etc. There is one solitary useless horse worth about £5 at most and this is the [illeg.] to the district, murder or any other legally foul crime can be committed with impunity and no police to check or follow up the criminals. The whole police arrangements are a real disgrace to the police dept and the govt for allowing it to exist. I blame Sub-Inspector McCarthy who is in charge of the district and resides in Derby. He is well aware of the state of affairs, but as economy in the police dept means practically [illeg.] promotion of course it is his interest to keep down expenses even the use of a native to look the horse or as a tracker is a farce. I’m having to get a boy if available at his own expense. The whole business is a disgrace and I hope questions will be asked as soon as [illeg.] that will expose the present mal-administration of the dept.
I remain yours obediently,
James Isdell

Barred Creek
To: Chief Protector, Perth
I left Broome on Tuesday 11th en route for Carnot Bay. On Sunday before leaving a native named Jacky murdered his woman about a mile from Broome. As there is only the corporal and one foot policeman and a water policeman at the jetty, with no horses nor outfit to follow up the murder however I am glad to say I succeeded in capturing Jacky yesterday evening, with a little strategy and assistance from Capt Frances of the schooner Hercules he is now safe on board the schooner and I am sending him into Broome on a lugger today. I have no means of securing him in camp otherwise have taken him by horses.
I visited Willy Creek and saw a fair number of natives, as this creek is the best fishing ground along this coast, between Broome and Carnot Bay, I will shift all natives from Barred Creek to there. There are three coloured men camped cutting firewood and only boats for firewood enter the Creek. I visited some native wells in the Pindan but found these all dry. From Willy Creek I pushed on to Barred Creek arriving on Sunday. A very large number of natives were camped here but they had cleared our before I arrived. However most of them went away to Willy Creek and Streeter’s Station, of course when I leave they will all come back as they are well aware that there is no mounted police in the district. Capt Frances, who has a large staff of coloured me, overhauling his boats, complains very truthfully and bitterly about the neglect of the police dept in not having a mounted man to keep the natives away. They demoralise his men and prevent him keeping order amongst them. He wrote to Corp Stewart on the matter, I saw his letters on the day I left Broome. I told the Corporal to take it to the Acting Resident Magistrate as he had charge of the district and that I had done my best to get a mounted man and would not bother any more. Last December I had a wire from your department stating a good man was coming from Wyndham but have heard nothing further. On Sunday 9th, Capt Frances informs me a boat arrived from Broome with grog on board. Consequently there was a wild orgie amoungst the natives for a day or two, many of them getting knocked about fighting. I would strongly recommend the closing of Barred Creek against all natives starting from south bank of the mouth of the creek, thence 2 miles south, thence 2 miles east, thence 4 miles north, thence 2 miles west to coast, this would take in all the camping ground. Barred Creek is not a good fishing ground and after the boats leave no natives come near the creek until following lay up season. Willy Creek, 10 miles south of Barred Creek, is their main camping ground.
There has been very little rain anywhere, the country being very dry, last year up to end of January the average was 27 inches, this year to date it is barely 9 inches, a vast difference. I am afraid that if a change does not soon take place large numbers of back country abos will flock into the coast for food and water. I am afraid that along the southern coast from Broome to Wallal will be very bad and a large number of abos thrown on hands of the Dept for food. It must be remembered that the whole of that line of coast has been leased. The natives have not any acre of land of their own. The Govt stock route wells are being used by some [illeg.] stations and a native is not allowed to camp on any of them. This is a public scandal unless some provision is made by the way of reserves in the near future I am sure the relief expenditure will keep mounting. My past correspondence I have spoken strongly re this point and hope the [illeg.] country will be resumed for native purposes.
I remain yours obediently,
James Isdell

“Right of Occupancy”?

Landor, Edward Wilson. 1847. The Bushman: Life in a New Colony. London: Richard Bentley.
Online edition here

This chapter reveals how early settlers and government officials were well aware that the land had been seized from the Noongar Nation without consent or treaty.



The native population of our colony are said to be a much more peaceable and harmless race than those of any other part of Australia. In the early days of the settlement they caused a good deal of trouble, and were very destructive to the pigs and sheep of the colonists; but a little well-timed severity, and a steadily pursued system of government, soon reduced them into well-conducted subjects of the British Crown. There appears, however, to be little hope of civilizing them, and teaching them European arts and habits. Those of mature age, though indolent, and seldom inclined to be useful in the smallest degree, are peaceful in their habits; and when in want of a little flour will exert themselves to earn it, by carrying letters, shooting wild ducks with a gun lent to them, driving home cattle, or any other easy pursuit; but they appear to be incapable of elevation above their original condition. Considerable pains have been bestowed (especially by the Wesleyans) upon the native children, many of whom are educated in schools at Perth, Fremantle, and other places, in the hope of making them eventually useful servants to the settlers. Most of these, however, betake themselves to the bush, and resume their hereditary pursuits, just at the age when it is hoped they will become useful. Very frequently they die at that age of mesenteric disorders; and very few indeed become permanently civilized in their habits.

Nothing could be more anomalous and perplexing than the position of the Aborigines as British subjects. Our brave and conscientious Britons, whilst taking possession of their territory, have been most careful and anxious to make it universally known, that Australia is not a conquered country; and successive Secretaries of State, who write to their governors in a tone like that in which men of sour tempers address their maladroit domestics, have repeatedly commanded that it must never be forgotten “that our possession of this territory is based on a right of occupancy.”

A “right of occupancy!” Amiable sophistry! Why not say boldly at once, the right of power? We have seized upon the country, and shot down the inhabitants, until the survivors have found it expedient to submit to our rule. We have acted exactly as Julius Caesar did when he took possession of Britain. But Caesar was not so hypocritical as to pretend any moral right to possession. On what grounds can we possibly claim a right to the occupancy of the land? We are told, because civilized people are justified in extending themselves over uncivilized countries. According to this doctrine, were there a nation in the world superior to ourselves in the arts of life, and of a different religious faith, it would be equally entitled (had it the physical power) to the possession of Old England under the “right of occupancy;” for the sole purpose of our moral and social improvement, and to make us participants in the supposed truths of a new creed.

We have a right to our Australian possessions; but it is the right of Conquest, and we hold them with the grasp of Power. Unless we proceed on this foundation, our conduct towards the native population can be considered only as a monstrous absurdity. However Secretaries of State may choose to phrase the matter, we can have no other right of occupancy. We resolve to found a colony in a country, the inhabitants of which are not strong enough to prevent our so doing, though they evince their repugnance by a thousand acts of hostility.

We build houses and cultivate the soil, and for our own protection we find it necessary to declare the native population subject to our laws.

This would be an easy and simple matter were it the case of conquerors dictating to the conquered; but our Secretaries of State, exhibiting an interesting display of conscientiousness and timidity, shrink from the responsibility of having sanctioned a conquest over a nation of miserable savages, protected by the oracles at Exeter Hall, and reject with sharp cries of anger the scurrilous imputation. Instead, therefore, of being in possession by right of arms, we modestly appropriate the land to ourselves, whilst making the most civil assurances that we take not this liberty as conquerors, but merely in order to gratify a praiseworthy desire of occupying the country. We then declare ourselves seised in fee by right of occupancy. But now comes the difficulty. What right have we to impose laws upon people whom we profess not to have conquered, and who have never annexed themselves or their country to the British Empire by any written or even verbal treaty?

A O Neville Evidence Part 18

State Records Office of Western Australia
Acc 2922/1-2
Title: Transcript of evidence 1934
Item 1 & Item 2

Aborigines Royal Commission  005-3

Tuesday, 13th March, 1934

H. D. Moseley, Esq., Commissioner.

AUBUR [sic] OCTAVIUS NEVILLE, Chief Protector of Aborigines, further examined:

[Part 1] [Part 2] [Part 3] [Part 4] [Part 5] [Part 6] [Part 7] [Part 8] [Part 9] [Part 10] [Part 11] [Part 12] [Part 13] [Part 14] [Part 15] [Part 16] [Part 17] Continued…

I refer to Sections 118-120 of the Licensing Act, Section 45 of the Aborigines Act. The Licensing Act does not include half-castes, nor does it enable exempted aborigines or half-castes to obtain liquor. The object we have in view is to make it an offence to supply liquor, either to aborigines, half-castes or coloured persons, unless exempted, and to exclude those from licensed premises unless similarly exempted. In practice, most cases are taken under the Aborigines Act, as it has a wider application than these sections of the Licensing Act. It is proposed to insert a new section after Section 45 of the principal Act as follows: —
“45A.(1) Any person being the holder of a publican’s general license or wayside house license who shall permit or suffer any aboriginal or half-caste not exempt from the provisions of this Act to enter remain in or loiter about his licensed premises shall be guilty of an offence against this Act,
(2) Any aboriginal or half-caste not exempted from the provisions of this Act who enters or remains on or loiters about the premises in respect of which a publican’s general license or wayside house license under the provisions of the Licensing Act 1911-22 is held shall be guilty of an offence against this Act provided that this section shall not apply to any aboriginal or half-caste employed on the licensed premises under a permit granted by the Chief Protector.”
With regard to the first part, it has been ruled by the Crown Law Department that “aboriginal” means an aboriginal, defined under Section 2 of the Act and not under Section 3.

83. There is no definition under Section 2? — It says an original inhabitant of Australia; in other words, a half-caste is deemed to be an aboriginal is not included in the Section.

84. The definition in Section 2 is that of a half-caste. You have to read Section 3 to find out the definition of “aboriginal”? — I was thinking of the amendment we propose to make defining an aboriginal in that section.

[End of page 70]

I have here a minute by the Assistant Crown Solicitor written in 1932 and dealing with the definition of “aboriginal”. I put in the Chief Secretary’s department file No. 302/32 (Exhibit 22). Our object is to prevent natives, half-castes or coloured parsons obtaining liquor unless they are definitely exempted. A considerable number of people are getting liquor. At Wagin the other day the suppliers claimed that some they supplied did not come under the Act, but the Protector won his case. The last proviso in the proposed new section covers the granting of a license by the Chief Protector to a publican who may wish to employ a native on his premises. We give permission to publicans in the North only to employ as a yardman a male native, but we do not allow any females on the premises. Under regulation, the Chief Protector has power to give a special permit for that purpose. Sections 47 to 52 deal with firearms. These sections should be restored, but I do not think that is likely to happen. I recognise the wisdom of having one authority only to deal with the issue of licenses for firearms.

85. Probably anything that is done in that direction should be done by amending the Firearms Act? — The Commissioner of Police should work in conjunction with the Protector in regard to licenses to natives, so that there may be no injustice done to them. If the matter is left in the hands of the police, very few natives, as we know, will be permitted to carry firearms. Section 58 of the Act deals with penalties, it is proposed to increase some of the penalties which, in our opinion, are insufficient. We propose to substitute the words “three years” for “six months” in the fourth line, and to substitute the words “one hundred” for “fifty”.

86. That is the maximum term of imprisonment ? — Yes. We also propose to add the words “or both” after “pounds” in the last line. In the North, men, particularly Asiatics,

[End of page 71]

are constantly being brought up for supplying liquor to aborigines. They pay the fine of £50, but commit the same offence soon afterwards. The penalties are less than those provided in other ordinances in Australia. It would be a good check on wrongdoing if the penalties were increased. It is proposed to amend Section 59A. of the principal Act by inserting a new subsection as follows :—
“No admission of guilt or confession before trial shall be sought or obtained from any aboriginal or half-caste charged or suspected of any offence the punishment for which may involve loss of life or liberty except with the consent of the Chief Protector of Aborigines, and if any such admission or confession is obtained it shall not be received in evidence.”
Section 59A. of the Act provides that a native shall not plead guilty, shall not be allowed to plead guilty, can only plead guilty if the Protector does it for him, and is quite satisfied that he should plead guilty. In criminal court cases there is never a plea of guilty put in; it is always a plea of not guilty in order to give the native a chance. We find, however, that police officials extract confessions from natives and produce them in court as evidence. The two things are inconsistent. We bring a native to court and tell him we are going to give him a fair trial according to British law. In effect, he starts out as not guilty of the offence. Shortly after, the police trot out the confession. I invariably protest in court against such confessions being put in. The judge has remarked that the two things are not the same. The confessions have not always been accepted as evidence. Nevertheless, a man stands condemned in spite of the fact that he is not permitted to plead guilty. It is our duty to prove a man guilty, if he is guilty.

87. We are rather altering the law as it applies to others? — Some of the admission are definitely obtained by threats. A native does not understand what is required of him. He willingly says he is guilty, and tells the whole

[End of page 72]

story with a certain amount of glee. In the case of a native murder, be may not see that he has done any wrong, and thinks he is a fine fellow. He thinks he is telling you something it was right for him to do from his point of view. He does not see why he should keep back the fact that he is guilty, and he spills it all out. The police go to him, and something of this kind occurs.

[End of page 73]

The policeman says to the native, “you want to tell me all about the killing business”. He does that to extract an admission. The policeman, as he must do, also says, “Suppose you don’t want to tell me, all right.” The native does not see any harm in telling him and he replies, “I did it all right. Of course I did.” Then the native goes on to tell the policeman why he did it. I suggest that if a white man were to be spoken to by a policeman along those lines in such circumstances, he would naturally shut up like an oyster because he would know that he would have to stand his trial. A white man in those circumstances would not say a word unless there were certain circumstances that might compel him to do so. Natives should not be asked such questions by policemen.

It is our duty to show that the native committed the murder if he did so, and to prove the charge. Here is a case in point. A man named, we shall say, Barney, is arrested on a charge of murder. The policeman says to him, “What you want spear old fellow for?” The native answers the policeman giving the reason why he did it and explains how he did it. Of course he would do so because the native thought he was doing right according to tribal law. The contentions I have raised coincide with our idea that native courts should be established to deal with such cases. I consider the clauses proposed to be embodied in the new legislation are necessary for the protection of the natives in order to give them a fair unbiassed trial. I submit a copy of a minute I seat to my Minister last year dealing with matters I have been referring to including the establishment of native courts (Exhibit No. 23). In every dependency or country where there are natives and in some of the Australian States, special courts have been established to deal with native tribal cases. We propose that special oourts shall be established in Western Australia for a similar purpose. I was asked to give evidence on that subject before the Royal Commission on the Constitution of the Commonwealth in 1927. I did so and since then the matter has been taken up in different parts of Australia and I claim that I was the first to make that suggestion in the interstate of the aborigines.

[End of page 74]